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wNsryia is;shï fy<s lrk wuq;= b;sydih
woy.kak neß ys;d.kak neß úiañ; fy<sorõj

úlsmSähd úYajfldaIhg wkqj wekagdlaáldj uq,skau oel .;a hqfrdamShhka jkafka reishdkq rdclSh kdúl yuqodfõ ^Tlaf;daïn¾ úma,jhg fmr id¾ rciufha& woañrd,ajrfhl= jQ f*ìhka f.d;af,aí yd Tyq iu. .fõIKhg tlajQ woañrd,a ñlhs,a ,ifr*ah' ta 1820 jif¾§h'

úlsmSähdjg wkqj reishdkqjka wekagdlaáldj fidhd.ekSug fmrisgu" tkï jir oyia .Kkdjl isgu zfgrd Tiag%d,siaZ kïjQ úYd, N+ñhla .ek mqrdjD;a; mej;sks' ^fgrd } NQñh $ Tiag%d,sia } olaYsK&'

mqrdjD;a; ´kE ;rï mej;sh yelsh" tfy;a tu mqrdjD;a; mokïjQ fm!rdKsl is;shï we;ehs lsjfyd;a Tn úYajdi lrkjdo@ wekagdlaáldj fidhd.ekqfka 1820§h' ta jkg úg uqÆukskau whsia j,ska jeiSf.disks' f.dvìu muKla fkdj ie;mqï ish.Kkla wE;g uqyqomjd whsia j,ska jeiSf.dia we;s ksid wekagdlaáldfõ ksjerÈ is;shï we|.ekSug yelsjQfha kùk frvd¾ is;shï lrkh u.sks'

tfy;a" wekagdlaáldfõ kshu NQñh fmkajk merKs is;shï lsysmhlau yuqù ;sfnk w;r mqÿuhg lreK kï fuu is;shïj, fmkajk wekagdlaáldj ysfuka jeiqkq ysu ldka;drhla fkdj .x.d" we,fod< mjd i,l=Kq flrekq" ysfuka f;dr N+ñhl is;shï ùuh'

msß frhsia is;shu

msß frhsia fkdfyd;a woañrd,a msÍ bnka ydð fuuoa 16jeks ishji Tfgdaudka wêrdcHfhys ^;=¾ls wêrdcHh& iqm%lg foaY.fõYlfhls' is;shïlrKh ms,sn| oeä Wkkaÿjla oelajQ Tyq 1513§ f,dal is;shula ks¾udKh lf,ah' 1929§ ;=¾lsfha bia;dkanq,a w.kqjr merKs rcud,s.hl ;sî yuqjqkq fuu is;shfuys fldgila bÍ úkdYù f.dia ;snqK;a b;sß fldgi fyd¢ka ixrlaYKh ù ;snqKs'

fuu is;shfuys wm%sldj" hqfrdamh yd ol=Kq wfußldj" ksjerÈ wlaYdxY j, ia:dk.;fldg ;sfnk nj is;shï th mÍlaYdl, fndfyda m<mqreÿ Ys,amSka mjihs' wekagdlaáldj NQñ m%foaYhla f,i y÷kd.kakg jir 300lg l,ska wekagdlaáldfõ W;=reÈ. fjr< fmkajk fï is;shu fndfyda úfYaI{hskaf.a úYauhg fy;=ù ;sfí'

woañrd,a msÍ frhsia" ;ud fuu is;shu ks¾udKh lsÍfuys,d Tfgdauka wêrdcHfha rdclSh mqia:ld,fha ;snqKq bmerKs is;shï .Kkdjla Wmfhda.Slr.;a nj Tyq ish is;shï úia;rfha i|yka fldg ;sfí' ' msÍ frhsia mjik wkaoug" Tyq uyd wef,laiekav¾ rciufha we¢ is;shï fukau l%siafgdam¾ fldf<dïnia úiska we¢ is;shulao mdol fldg.;anj nj i|yka fldg we;;a tu is;shï oekg wia:dk.; ù ;sfí'

is;shfï hï hï jerÈ we;;a" wekagdlaáldj kñka f.dvìula .ek lsisfjl=;a fkdokakd iuhl" tjekakla fuu is;shfuys fmkaùu;a" tu is;shu ilialsÍug fm!rdKsl is;shï Ndú;dl, nj is;shï ieliQ woañrd¾ jrhdu mejiSu;a ksid wE; w;S;fha§ fuu is;shï ilia lsÍug oekqu ;snqKQ" f,dj mqrd .fõYKfha ksh;jkakg we;s YsIagdpdrhla ;sfnkakg we;s nj wkqudk l, yelsh'

msÍ frhsia is;shu ms,sn| úfõpk fuu is;shu ksjerÈ fkdjk nj;a" ol=Kq weußldj úYd,;ajfhka jeä nj;a" tys ol=Kq fl,jr wekagdlaáldjg yd ù we;s nj fmkajk nj;a mjihs' ta wkqj msß frhsia ^yd wfkl=;a fm!rdKsl is;shï ieliQjka& ckm%jdofha tk fgrd Tiag%d,sia ys;¨jg is;shug we;=,;a fldg we;s njg Tjqka ks.ukh lrhs'

tfy;a" msÍ frhsiau ,shd;nd we;s wkaoug" Tyq tu is;shï ilia lf,a merKs is;shï uQ,dY%fldg f.khs' ta wkqj" Tyq mdol fldg.;a fndfyda is;shï j, wekagdlaáldj igyka fldg fkd;snqKd kï Tyq th ish is;shug we;=,;a lr fkd.kakg ;snqKs'

tfukau" msÍ frhsia f.a wekagdlaáldj úfõpkh lrkakjqka Tyq wlaYdxY ksjerÈj hqfrdamh" wm%sldj yd ol=Kq weußldj igyka lf,a flfiaoehs úia;r fkdlrhs' fïjd ksjerÈj igyka lrkakg Tyqg yels jkakg we;af;a Tyq mdol fldg.;a fm!rdKsl is;shïo tf,iu ksjerÈj tu NQñ m%foaY fmkajk ksid jkakg fkdyelso@ ksjerÈj wm%sldj" hqfrdamh yd ol=Kq wfußldj fmkajkakg yelskï" Tjqka wekagdlaáldj .ek fkdoek isákakg we;ao@

tkï 16jeks ishjfia msß f¾iaf.a ld,fha§;a merKshhs is;sh yels ksjerÈ is;shï ;sî we;' tajd ks¾udKh lf,a ljqrekao@ flfiao@

Tfrdkafghia *sfkahia f.a f,dal is;shu

Tfrdkafghia *sfkahiao 16 jeks Y;j¾Yfha úiQ m%xY cd;sl .Ks;{fhl= yd is;shï Ys,amsfhls' Tyqf.a is;shfuys wekagdlaáldj b;d meyeÈ,sj olajd we;' *sfkahiao fuu is;shu ks¾udKh lrkakg tjlg ;snQ merKs is;shï .Kkdjla Wmfhda.Slr .kakg we;'

*sfkahiaf.a wekagdlaáld is;shfï we;s ;j;a úYañ; ,laYKhla kï tys .x.d we,fod, yd l÷jeá i,l=Kq fldg ;sîuhs' lsisfjl=;a fkdÿgq" ckm%jdofha tk olaYsK NQñh ;ukag ysf;k wdldrhlg .iaje,a we<fod< we;s NQñhla hhs is;d *sfkahia fuu igyka ;enqjdo@ ke;fyd;a wE; w;S;fha§ wekagdlaáldj ysfuka f;dr iuhl Ôj;ajqkq ÈhqKq ckfldÜGdYhla úiska w¢k,o bmerKs is;shï Tyq mdol lr .;af;ao@

úfõpk

*sfkahia olajd ;sfnkafka wekagdlaáldj fkdj Tiafgs%,shd uydoaùmh nj iuyr úfõplhska mjihs' tf,i ;¾lhla f.dv ke.sh yelsh'

tfy;a-

fuu is;shfï ol=Kq weußldfõ fl,jr fuu uyoaùmhg .Eù we;' ol=Kq weußldj ,`.skau we;af;a Tiafgs%,shdjo@ wekagdlaáldjo@ - olaYsK w¾Of.da,fha my; is;shu n,kak



.Ks;{fhl= jQ *sfkahiag fujeks jeroaola isÿúh yelso@ ie;mqï 4000la wE;ska we;s Tiafgs%,shdj Tyq ol=Kq wfußldjg fu;rï ,`.ska igyka lf,a wehs@



*sfkahia we| we;af;a Tiafgs%,shdjo@ wekagdlaáldjo@

*sfkahia hkq wdOqkslfhl= fkdj" 16 jeks ishjfia m%xYfha Ôj;ajqkq iqm%lg pß;hls' keúhkayg uqyqÿ ;rKfha§ u. fidhd.ekSu i|yd Maritime Navigation úYh ms,sn|j fmd;a .Kkdjla ,shQ Tyq .Ks;h ms,sn|jo fmd;a rdYshla ,shd ;sfí' tumKla fkdj Tyq ;drldj úoHdj ms,sn|jo fmd;a ,shd we;' Tyqf.ka úoHdjg jqkq fiajdj w.ehsu i|yd i|ys wdjdghla zTfrdkafghiaZ f,i kï fldg we;'

fujeks mqoa.f,l=g úYd, jerÈ fyda w;miqùï jkakg mqÆjkso@

.eiagd,aäf.a is;shu

.eiagd,aä 16jeks ishjfia b;d,sfha fjksia kqjr Ôj;ajqkq iqm%lg is;shï lrefjls'1548§ Tyq t,soelajQ f,dal is;shï fm," tf;la ks¾udKh lrk ,o b;d ksjerÈu f,dal is;shï fm, njg ms,s.efkhs'

.eiagd,aäf.a is;shfuyso ol=Kq weußldfõ fl<jr we;s wekagdlaáldj n,kak' *sfkahiag jerÿkd kï" .eiagd,aä ygo tu je/oao tf,iu isÿúh yelso@


16 jeks ishõfia Ôj;ajqkq .eiagd,aä" 19jeks ishjfiys fidhd.;a wekagdlaáldj fu;rï ksjerÈj igyka lf,a flfiao@ .eiagd,aä" *sfkahiaf.a wdNdYh ,enqjdo@ ke;fyd;a msß frhsia yd *sfkahia fukau .eiagd,aäo fm!rdKsl is;shïj, wdNdYh ,enqjdo@

kQ;k udkj b;sydi{hska fkdms,s.kakd b;sydih

udkj b;sydih yd ;dlaYKfha ÈhqKqj ms,sn|j;a oekg fmdÿfõ b.ekafjk u;jdo ksjerÈ hhs ms,s.kakjqka" tkï ñksid YsIagdpdr f,i ÈhQKqjkakg mgkaf.k oekg jir 10"000la j;a fkdue;s nj;a" Bðma;= msróv jir 5000lg fmr frdaoh fyda hlv mjd fkd;snqkq" f.dú;ekska yd fj<|dfuka Ôj;a jqkq merKs Bð;a;= jeishka úiska ks¾udKh lrk ,o nj;a úYajdi lrk udkj YsiaGdpdr úfYaI{hska" fuu is;shï yqfola wkqudk u; ks¾udKh lrk ,o tajd nj m%ldYlr;s'

tfy;a -

wE; w;S;fha§ oekg udkj b;sydifha W.kajkjdg jvd ;dlaYKfhka yd oekqñka imsß f,dj mqrdu foaYd.fõYKfha yd fj,|dfï kshq;=" is;shïlrKh" ;drld úoHdj" wlaYdxY foaYdxY ms,sn| yi, oekqula we;s" ksjerÈ ld<.Kl hka;% yd ud,sud hka;% ;snQ" udkj YsIagdpdrhla ;sfnkakg we;ehs wkqudk l, yelsh'iuyreka fuu YsIagdpdrh maf,afgda i|yka lrk weÜ,Ekaáia isYaGdpdrh njg woy;s'

fuu YsIaGdpdrh" weÜ,Ekaáia YsIagdpdrh jQjdo keoao hkak újdohg n÷kal, yels lreKls' tfy;a óg jir 10"000-25"000 wE; w;S;fha" tkï kQ;k udkj isYaGdpdrfha W.kajk wkaoug ñksid YsIagdpdrj" k.r ;kñka" foaYfõYKh lrkakg mgka.kakd ld,hg fndfyda fmr" b;d ÈhqKq udkj j¾.h f,djmqrd .fõYKfha fhfoñka" is;shï ;kñka" f,dj mqrdu ckdjdi ìyslrkakg we;s nj ms,s.kakg isÿfõ'

msróv jir 5000-6000lg jvd merKs ke;ehs mqrdúoHd{hska mejiQjo" merKs ñir f,aLkj,g wkqj msróv" Tjqkaf.a ñir rdcOdksh wdrïnjk ld,fhao wo fukau Tjqkgo olskakg ;snQ nj lshefõ' tkï msróv Bðma;= YsIagdpdrhg jvd merKs úh hq;=h' t§fkod Ôú;fha fndfyda foa memsria m;aj, yd mQckSh ia:dkj, ì;a;sj, igyka fldg ;enQ ñir jeishka" Tjqkaf.a fm%!vu ks¾udKh úhhq;= msróv ;ekqfõ flfiaoehs lsisu ;ekl igyka fldg ke;' Bðma;=fõ fm!rdKsl f.dv ke.s,sj, olakg ,efnk yhfrd.a,s*sla f,aLk lsisjla msróvj, olaKg ke;'

tmuKla fkdj" ia*skslaia f,i ye¢kafjk msróv wi, we;s merKs ñksia$isxy rEmj, mdol .,aj, c,fhka jQ Ldokh ms,sn| i<l=Kq we;' tfy;a fïjd ;ekQ ñir f*frdajrekaf.a YsIaGdpdrh wd¾ïNjk úg;a Bðma;=j wofukau úh<s ld<.=Khla we;s m%foaYhls' Bðma;=jg c,.e,Sï we;súh yels wkaofï uyd j¾Yd weojegqfka óg jir 10"000 muK fmr whsia hq.h wjika fjñka ;snQld,fhah' tkï fuu ia*skslaia rEm uq,skau ks¾udKh lrkakg we;af;a ñir f*frda rcjre fkdj óg jir 10"000-15"000 fmr we;sù ;snqKq YsIaGdpdrhla úisks'

wjdikdjlg fuka" nyq;rhla udkj úoHd{hska" mqrdúoHd{hska fuu ;¾l ú;¾la wj{dfjka neyer lrhs' fujeks lreKq ms,sn|j jeäÿr yeoEÍula fyda lsÍug Tjqka W;aiy fkdlrhs'

óg fmro ckm%jdofha yd m%nkaOj, úia;r lr we;s k.r yd isÿùï miql,l ienE njg mqrdúoHd{hska úiskau fidhdf.k we;' óg fyd|u WodyrKh .%Sl lúfhl= jQ fydau¾" ish b,shâ yd Tfvis ldjHhkays úia;r l, fg%dahs mqrjrhhs'

m%jdohlaj ;sî miqj ienEjgu fidhd.;a fydau¾f.a fg%dahs mqrjrh'

fg%dahs mqrjrh m%isoaO jkafka l%sia;=mQ¾j 850§ muK .%Sisfha Ôj;ajqkq fydau¾ úiska rÑ; b,shâ yd Tfvis ùr ldjHhkaf.ks' 

fg%dahs mqr Tgqkak ysñ l=urd jqkq meßia" bmerKs .%Sl iuQydKavqfõ fldgila jqkq iamd¾gdjg ¥; fufyjrlg meñfKhs' fuys§ iamd¾gdfõ rcq jqkq w.fuïkkaf.a w.fufyish jqkq iqrEmS fy,ka yd fmñka nefËk meßia weh yd iu. ish kqjr jqkq fg%dahs mqrhg m,d ths' iamd¾gdfõ rcq w.fuïkka" wfkl=;a .%Sl rdcHhka iu. tlaj ;ukaf.a fufyish fidrdf.k .sh meßia l=uref.a fg%dahs mqrjrh jg,hs' oi jirl hqoaOhlg uq,mqrk fuu wdl%uKh wjikajkafka iqm%lg fg%dacka wYajhd Wmldrfhka fg%dahs jeishka rjgd Tjqkaf.a iY%Sl k.rh jkid oeófuks'

;kslru fydau¾f.a ys;¨ m%nkaOhla f,i ie<flñka ;snqKq fg%dhs mqrjrh fidhd .ekSug 1870§ c¾uka mqrd úoHd{fhl= jQ fykaßla Ya,Sukag yelsúh'

tmuKla fkdj" fg%dahs mqrjrh fidhd .ekSfuka miqj jqjo fydau¾f.a b,shâ yd Tfvis ldjHhka m%nkaO muKla nj;a" Ndr;fha rdudhkfhka wdNdYh ,nkakg we;s njg;a ;¾lhla f.dvk.k ,§" tfy;a fuu ;¾lho iEfyk ÿrg ì|oeóug 2001 jif¾§ wfußldkq yd wh¾,ka; m¾fhaYlhska fofmd,la iu;aúh' N+ úoHd{hska jqkq Tjqka" fydau¾f.a ùr ldjHj, úia;r flfrk fg%dahs mqrjrh wjg NQúYu;d yd ,laYK" fg%dahs mqrjrh wi, olskakg ,efnk NQúYu;d j,g iudk nj jir 20lg wêl ld,hl mÍYK yd .fõYK j,ska miqj ;yjqre lrk ,§' ta wkqj fydau¾f.a ldjHfha i|yka fg%dahs mqrjrh ieneúkau ;snqKd muKla fkdj .%Sl fg%dahs hqoaOh mjd ieneúkau isÿjkakg we;s nj oeka úYajdi flf¾' Tjqka hqO jeÿfka iqrEmS fy,ka fjkqfjkao ke;fyd;a fjk;a wd¾:sl fyda foaYmd,k fya;+ka u;o hkak ;ju;a meyeÈ,s ke;'

fydau¾f.a fg%dahs ienEkï wfkla fm!rdKsl mqrdjD;a; yd is;shï@

tajdj,o hï i;Hhla ;sfnk njg wkd.;fha§ fidhd.kakg yelsjkakg mqÆjk'


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විකිපීඩියා විශ්වකෝෂයට අනුව ඇන්ටාක්ටිකාව මුලින්ම දැක ගත් යුරෝපීයයන් වන්නේ රුසියානු රාජකීය නාවික හමුදාවේ (ඔක්තෝම්බර් විප්ලවයට පෙර සාර් රජසමයේ) අද්මිරාල්වරයෙකු වූ ෆේබියන් ගොත්ලේබ් හා ඔහු සමග ගවේෂණයට එක්වූ අද්මිරාල් මිකයිල් ලසරෙෆ්ය. ඒ 1820 වසරේදීය.

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